Bluetooth issues can be troubleshooted in several ways. The first thing to check is toggling airplane mode which will sometimes get Bluetooth functioning again. Next, make sure Bluetooth is enabled in the top bar, or in the Bluetooth system settings.
Then, try reinstalling Bluetooth related software with this command:
sudo apt install --reinstall bluez gnome-bluetooth indicator-bluetooth pulseaudio-module-bluetooth
tlp is installed, then there may be settings interfering with Bluetooth functionality. Edit this file and disable Wifi and Bluetooth power saving features:
sudo gedit /etc/default/tlp
There is a program called Bluetooth Manager which is included with XFCE. It can sometimes pair and trust Bluetooth devices better than the default Bluetooth settings. Install it with:
sudo apt install blueman
Then, run Bluetooth Manager. Check for the device being trusted, and also try re-pairing in that program.
lsmod | grep bluetooth dmesg | grep Bluetooth
These will show if the Bluetooth module (driver) is loaded, and what the system messages are.
sudo systemctl status bluetooth
This will check to see if the service that handles Bluetooth is running.
rfkill list sudo rfkill unblock bluetooth
If both Bluetooth and Wireless are soft blocked or if the Wireless is soft blocked run this command to unblock:
sudo rfkill unblock all
This will check to see Bluetooth is blocked, and if so, unblock it.
pactl load-module module-bluetooth-discover
This will load the PulseAudio module responsible for Bluetooth Audio. Typically, it’s loaded by default, but sometimes a manual loading can get Bluetooth headsets working again.
This will show all Bluetooth related messages. Try leaving this command running while pairing or using a device to see any error messages or failures.
Here are a few addition tidbits about the Bluetooth system that may help with troubleshooting.
Once you are connected to a Bluetooth speaker, you may need to change where your current audio is “routed”. You can get a more advanced interface to settings on audio with the program called PulseAudio Volume Control. To install, run this command:
sudo apt install pavucontrol
There will be a drop-down in the Playback tab for each of your applications that is outputting sound that you should be able to change to your Bluetooth speaker.
Occasionally the kernel and/or Linux firmware will have problems. Sometimes, newer Linux firmware packages will have fixed bugs that aren’t yet in the repositories. They can be downloaded from here:
Then they can be installed with this command:
sudo dpkg -i linux-firmware_1.167.1_all.deb
Sometimes, additional programs need installed for mobile equipment file transfer. Please install the transfer tool with this command:
sudo apt install obexfs obexftp
Then connect (pair) to the device and see if send files works. To receive files over Bluetooth you will need to enable the option in Personal File Sharing.